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Forbidden Music: The Jewish Composers Banned by the Nazis

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With National Socialism's arrival in Germany in 1933, Jews dominated music more than virtually any other sector, making it the most important cultural front in the Nazi fight for German identity. This groundbreaking book looks at the Jewish composers and musicians banned by the Third Reich and the consequences for music throughout the rest of the twentieth century. Because With National Socialism's arrival in Germany in 1933, Jews dominated music more than virtually any other sector, making it the most important cultural front in the Nazi fight for German identity. This groundbreaking book looks at the Jewish composers and musicians banned by the Third Reich and the consequences for music throughout the rest of the twentieth century. Because Jewish musicians and composers were, by 1933, the principal conveyors of Germany’s historic traditions and the ideals of German culture, the isolation, exile and persecution of Jewish musicians by the Nazis became an act of musical self-mutilation. Michael Haas looks at the actual contribution of Jewish composers in Germany and Austria before 1933, at their increasingly precarious position in Nazi Europe, their forced emigration before and during the war, their ambivalent relationships with their countries of refuge, such as Britain and the United States and their contributions within the radically changed post-war music environment.


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With National Socialism's arrival in Germany in 1933, Jews dominated music more than virtually any other sector, making it the most important cultural front in the Nazi fight for German identity. This groundbreaking book looks at the Jewish composers and musicians banned by the Third Reich and the consequences for music throughout the rest of the twentieth century. Because With National Socialism's arrival in Germany in 1933, Jews dominated music more than virtually any other sector, making it the most important cultural front in the Nazi fight for German identity. This groundbreaking book looks at the Jewish composers and musicians banned by the Third Reich and the consequences for music throughout the rest of the twentieth century. Because Jewish musicians and composers were, by 1933, the principal conveyors of Germany’s historic traditions and the ideals of German culture, the isolation, exile and persecution of Jewish musicians by the Nazis became an act of musical self-mutilation. Michael Haas looks at the actual contribution of Jewish composers in Germany and Austria before 1933, at their increasingly precarious position in Nazi Europe, their forced emigration before and during the war, their ambivalent relationships with their countries of refuge, such as Britain and the United States and their contributions within the radically changed post-war music environment.

30 review for Forbidden Music: The Jewish Composers Banned by the Nazis

  1. 5 out of 5

    Anna Q

    Michael Haas introduces his book with a selection from Heinrich Heine's epic poem, "Germany: A Winter's Tale: This a magic cauldron be, wherein we find bewitching forces.... A German future here to see, Within this fetid sink; Yet don't be sickened by the scum, Or its penetrating stink" Haas chose well. Heine's work was banned in Germany nearly a century before the rise of the Third Reich, which would ban the works of the primary source of German musical culture - Jewish composers and librettists Michael Haas introduces his book with a selection from Heinrich Heine's epic poem, "Germany: A Winter's Tale: This a magic cauldron be, wherein we find bewitching forces.... A German future here to see, Within this fetid sink; Yet don't be sickened by the scum, Or its penetrating stink" Haas chose well. Heine's work was banned in Germany nearly a century before the rise of the Third Reich, which would ban the works of the primary source of German musical culture - Jewish composers and librettists. With impeccable scholarship, Michael Haas examines the effects of these persecutions on the musicians and on the course of Western musical history and culture. For readers interested in exploring this subject further, Haas includes a magisterial bibliography.

  2. 5 out of 5

    Inna

    This book is about Jewish composers in Germany and Austria during the period between the emancipation and the post-WWII. The author emphasized an attempt to integrate into a society through something seemingly universal - music. He also emphasized the failure of this attempt with reconceptualization of art as an expression of race. Within that framework he describes a marvelously creative musical life and than, sadly, its collapse when composers were deported to concentration camps or, at best, This book is about Jewish composers in Germany and Austria during the period between the emancipation and the post-WWII. The author emphasized an attempt to integrate into a society through something seemingly universal - music. He also emphasized the failure of this attempt with reconceptualization of art as an expression of race. Within that framework he describes a marvelously creative musical life and than, sadly, its collapse when composers were deported to concentration camps or, at best, emigrated to countries in which there was rarely any interest in their kind of creativity. There, ironically, they seemed way too German or too Austrian to interest a local audience.

  3. 4 out of 5

    Eric Oliver

    Fascinating read. I offer it my highest praise: reading this book inspired me to search for recordings of the works discussed and more books.

  4. 4 out of 5

    Mark

    How anyone is able to ascertain the religious ethnicity of a person by the music they write is beyond me. The "Jewishness" of the music created by German-Jewish composers in the years before Hitler came to power was something primarily ascertained after the fact, and the facts of the composer's biography- because German music was neither ever "German" nor "Jewish" as most of these people all learned from the same schools and the same teachers, and they all primarily wrote in traditional styles a How anyone is able to ascertain the religious ethnicity of a person by the music they write is beyond me. The "Jewishness" of the music created by German-Jewish composers in the years before Hitler came to power was something primarily ascertained after the fact, and the facts of the composer's biography- because German music was neither ever "German" nor "Jewish" as most of these people all learned from the same schools and the same teachers, and they all primarily wrote in traditional styles and forms. Except for the "12-toners," who had feet in both camps, apparently, the Nazis wishing to decry the Jewish ones for their "degradation" of the art, and to prop up the "Aryan" ones as holding to somesuch "avant-garde" of National Socialist Kultur. It was all a crock. Thousands of them died, emigrated and were persecuted pillar to post, and only they who were able to flee were able to save themselves from the tidal wave of Death and Ignominy the Nazis unleashed.

  5. 4 out of 5

    Mark

    Forbidden Music is an absolutely spectacular book. Some of the names (Korngold, Steiner, Schreker) may be familiar to listeners (and fans of classic Hollywood movies), but there is an vast, vast ocean of lesser known names who have just dropped into the void. Haas has done a tremendous service to these composers twice: first through the stellar recording series he produced in the nineties (Entartete Musik, to go along with the art exhibition Entartete Kunst), and now with this study of the compo Forbidden Music is an absolutely spectacular book. Some of the names (Korngold, Steiner, Schreker) may be familiar to listeners (and fans of classic Hollywood movies), but there is an vast, vast ocean of lesser known names who have just dropped into the void. Haas has done a tremendous service to these composers twice: first through the stellar recording series he produced in the nineties (Entartete Musik, to go along with the art exhibition Entartete Kunst), and now with this study of the composers. Haas points the way to much research that needs to be done and opens the door (again) the lost world of music banned by the Nazis. Very highly recommended to those with an interest in German and Austrian music of the early twentieth century, those with an interest in the total impact of the the Nazis on European cultural life, and those seeking to learn about the immense impact of these composers on American music and culture in the thirties and beyond. Haas reviews the biographies, major works,and professional relationships of these composers, with particular attention to the pre-war performance history of their works. Haas also examines the post-war challenges to the recovery of the music of these composers. Among other things, he points to Schoenberg's atonal messianism as eclipsing the work of the more tonally-oriented composers: "Today, revivals of Schreker's music have started to fill out our knowledge of a composer who was marginalised for too long. As his biographer Christopher Hailey points out, the postwar declaration by musical modernists that it was music's destiny to move away from tonality overshadowed alternative views that music was capable of moving forward by other means. Schoenberg's forebodings created such a sense of radical departure that other developments found themselves eclipsed. Schoenberg prophesied a murderous age – as such he was hailed as a musical Messiah: in effect, the messenger became the message. Anyone who represented an alternative aesthetic was seen as detracting from Schoenbergian truth and was, in effect, representing a false gospel." Haas also looks at the challenges faced by the surviving composers after the war: "It was a perfect storm that now raged against Jewish composers, who, having been banned by Hitler and his odious Thousand-Year Reich, found themselves unwelcome in their former homes, and only reluctantly accepted in their new ones. The ravages of war left Germany needing every capable pair of hands available to rebuild its devastated infrastructure and to establish stability in the middle of a very unsettled Europe. Apart from efforts by the Americans, the removal of former Nazis from cultural positions was not a high priority for any of the occupying forces. The other three occupying powers had decided that music was so close to the German psyche that it was important to guarantee its seamless continuity, which they saw as extending from 1945 rather than 1933." This book is profoundly informative introduction to a vast world of lost music. Although some of these composers are coming back, it is a slow process, and one can only hope that the wide readership of this important work of history will help drive the demand for the continued revival of this repertory.

  6. 5 out of 5

    Robert

    I'm always on the lookout for music I haven't discovered yet, and FORBIDDEN MUSIC certainly provided that in spades. I don't really have an affinity for Jewish composers or music in particular, but I am drawn to the rare. The book is mostly about the composers that were directly affected by the Nazi regime, although there is a few preceding chapters of historical context which explains how the situation came about. Anti-Semitism in Germany (and Europe, in general) has always existed in some form I'm always on the lookout for music I haven't discovered yet, and FORBIDDEN MUSIC certainly provided that in spades. I don't really have an affinity for Jewish composers or music in particular, but I am drawn to the rare. The book is mostly about the composers that were directly affected by the Nazi regime, although there is a few preceding chapters of historical context which explains how the situation came about. Anti-Semitism in Germany (and Europe, in general) has always existed in some form or another, but the perfect storm of Wagner and German nationalism led to some of the most tragic events in world history. The book is super-thorough and detailed, with plenty of primary source excerpts that explicate more than could ever be expressed through mere analysis (although there is plenty of that, to be sure). For me, the most interesting chapters were the previously mentioned first few chapters, which begin with Europe post-Vienna Congress and lead up to the first couple decades of the twentieth century. Once the book reaches the point at which composers started jumping ship and/or being imprisoned, it became a little more rote in terms of narrative. If there's anything to be learned from this, aside from discovering under-appreciated music, it's that history has an uncanny way of repeating itself. The passages which describe the racism and bigotry of certain individuals and segments of the population, and the impossibly difficult situations that Jewish refugees were put in, reminded me a lot of current world events. Hopefully, humanity has learned from the past so that we won't let the atrocities visited upon the Jews (and other ethnic/social groups) happen again to others. My only real complaint about the book (which isn't really a complain, per se) is that there was only a few lines in the book devoted to Erwin Schulhoff, the primary reason I bought it in the first place. Other than that, I would highly recommend this to anyone who loves history and/or music.

  7. 4 out of 5

    Sator

    Although it seems scarcely credible that there might be writers left in the musicology world who take Peter Viereck's ring-wing rewriting of history seriously today, here is a book for the skeptics amongst you. Please read my review of Viereck first: my link text The term Entartete Musik was coined by the National Socialists and literally means "degenerate music" as they condemned modernism in art. The Decca series of recordings, of which Haas was the producer, aimed to revive the fortunes of comp Although it seems scarcely credible that there might be writers left in the musicology world who take Peter Viereck's ring-wing rewriting of history seriously today, here is a book for the skeptics amongst you. Please read my review of Viereck first: my link text The term Entartete Musik was coined by the National Socialists and literally means "degenerate music" as they condemned modernism in art. The Decca series of recordings, of which Haas was the producer, aimed to revive the fortunes of composers, many of whom were Jewish, whose music was suppressed by the National Socialists. Although I am inclined to be immensely supportive of someone involved in an excellent enterprise like the Entartete Musik project, after reading the book by Michael Hass, in the end I could only be utterly appalled that an undertaking like this had been entrusted to someone who scandalously manifests frightfully reactionary right-wing socio-political and aesthetic ideologies. In the end, his book constitutes the most ridiculous rewriting of history from a right-wing perspective I could imagine. It is a right-wing narrative that reads like a Nazi UFO conspiracy story. It is for this reason that this poorly written shambles of a book deserves to be thoroughly taken apart. The most shocking aspect of Michael Haas's writing is that he exhibits absolutely no familiarity with the history of the time period that the book's title openly purports to be about. There is not a single mention anywhere in the book of Sir Richard J. Evans, Saul Friedländer, Sir Ian Kershaw, Christopher Browning, Hans Mommsen, John Toland, or Joachim Fest. These are the landmark authors specialising in the time period of National Socialist Germany. Yet, despite working for a Jewish institute, Haas seems to live on another planet where he is so oblivious to the existence of these eminent historians that one is left wondering if he would even recognise any of their names. Glaring factual errors makes it too obvious that he has never consulted any of these authors' writings. For example Haas states on p219 that "Hitler himself proposed to Winifred [Wagner]" (no supportive citation). Had Haas read Ian Kershaw's monumental two-volume biography of Hitler he would have learned that: "[Hitler's] name was linked at various times with women from as diverse backgrounds as Jenny Haug, the sister of his chauffeur in the early years, and Winifred Wagner, the Bayreuth maestro's daughter-in-law. But, whatever the basis of the rumours—often malicious, exaggerated, or invented—none of his liaisons, it seems, had been more than superficial. No deep feelings were ever stirred." Kershaw: Hitler—Hubris 1889-1936 Particularly unforgivable is the fact that despite clearly being a reader of German, Haas has failed to read "Richard Wagner im Dritten Reich" (Richard Wagner in the Third Empire available only in German) edited by the great Holocaust scholar Saul Friedländer with seminal essays by both Saul Friedländer and Joachim Fest. It represents the most balanced and up-to-date academic overview of the subject by historians specialising in the era. Another sweeping statement that reveals how poorly read Haas is, is in his claims that the National Socialists considered themselves to be an "extreme secular" movement: "The law and the response of the church served as a reminder of the extreme secular nature of National Socialism, reinforcing the view of Austrofascists that there was little difference between Hitler and Stalin." Haas p205 (my emphasis) Haas seems to be blissfully unaware of the huge body of literature discussing the complicity of the churches with the National Socialist regime and its belief in a so-called "positive Christianity". Hitler considered himself a crusader in the name of God against the Godless Marxists and the Spawn of Judah. Haas's account smacks of a right-wing attempt to rewrite history from a pro-religious perspective. How Yale Press editors managed to allow a book to get to print by an author who exhibits absolutely no familiarity with current scholarly understanding of the general socio-political backdrop to the historical time period he is writing about truly beggars belief. Nor does passing familiarity with the bibliographic details of composers whose music were suppressed by the National Socialist regime suffice as a substitute for a basic understanding of the broader historical background to the era. In its place all we get is the surreptitious presentation of a fictitious right-wing narrative of world history: pulp fiction in the guise of history. The tone of the book is set from the very outset by referring first and foremost to the source from which he gets his understanding of the history of National Socialist Germany—right-wing historian, Peter Viereck and his Metapolitics. This leaves us in no doubt where Haas's political allegiances lie: "Wagner's views undoubtedly helped to shape the nineteenth century and, by extension, the twentieth. The American historian Peter Viereck in an essay from 1941 picks up on a concept communicated to Wagner by an admirer, Constantin Frantz. He called Wagner's political visions 'metapolitical', in other words, having the same relationship to normal politics as metaphysics to physics. Viereck uses the concept of 'metapolitics' to explain the evolution of Wagnerian thought into full-blooded National Socialism and by so doing, he deals with the very nature of the nineteenth century's Zeitgeist." Haas p39. From this Haas concludes: "To try to understand the dysfunctional relationship between Jews and non-Jews, we need to turn to Wagner, in many ways the father of German anti-Semitism based on 'race' rather than religious adherence, and as a composer, a central figure within this story." Haas p27 Haas takes too much uncritically out of Peter Viereck's Metapolitics: "... Yet regardless of the exact physical and psychological origins of Wagner's anti-Semitism, Viereck shows how Hitler was able to quote, almost word for word, much of Wagner's musings as being the foundation of his own political ideas. Indeed, Wagner was cited by Hitler as being his favourite 'political' writer." Haas p39. Viereck "shows" nothing of the sort and nor as a student in America during 1941, was he in any position to "show" anything of what went on in the innermost depths of Hitler's secretive mind. Likewise Viereck's "citation" in Mein Kampf stating that Wagner was Hitler's "favourite political writer" is completely fraudulent, and not a single historian specialising in this era agrees with Viereck's claim. Haas goes on to paraphrase Viereck: "This epiphany concerning Wagner's adherence to the German 'people' or 'nation' had already come as a defining experience with his return from France in 1843. Along with his new-found devotion to the German people or 'Volk', he abhors the French ... In fact, as Viereck goes on to explain, the Romantic notions of 'nation', 'nationhood' and 'the people' (Volk or 'folk') were the basis for a rejection of the Enlightenment and therefore required that reason be conquered by instinct, that law be conquered by passion, form by content, and scientific truth by collective mythology—ultimately that the 'dynamic' conquer the 'static'."Haas p39. This dynamic view of Nature, one that "conquers the static" is, supposedly the essence of an irrationalist Romanticism that leads directly to a racist ideology: "The Romantic view of spirit, soul and nation was, on one level, a visceral identification with a geographical place and culture, while on another it was a thinly disguised lever with which to remove those perceived as not belonging. To recently enfranchised Jews, there was no contradiction in being both Jewish and German. Romantics, however, saw the individual blessed by the Almighty with a unique 'racial' identity founded on nationhood, using the more emotive description of 'blood'. To them, to be Jewish and German was not only a contradiction but a physical impossibility." Haas p47. The comical thing is that Haas seems to have no philosophy background either. If he did, he would discover that the German Romantic philosophers all got their dynamic conception of Nature from none other than the Jewish philosopher, Baruch Spinoza. None other than the great Romantic Idealist philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel said: "Spinoza is the high point of modern philosophy: either you are a Spinozist or not a philosopher at all" (Geschichte der Philosophy III, p163, Suhrkamp Verlag). It was Spinoza who introduced the emphasis on a dynamic conception of reality into German Romantic thought. It was a dynamic philosophy that influenced the Jena school as well as Schopenhauer, the Young Hegelians, and Wagner (for more details see Beiser's "German Idealism"). Hence why in Marx you get a dynamic conception of history centrally emphasising its dialectical development. Lenin famously said: "It is impossible completely to understand Marx’s Capital, and especially its first chapter, without having thoroughly studied and understood the whole of Hegel’s Logic. Consequently, half a century later none of the Marxists understood Marx!" V. I. Lenin: Conspectus of Hegel’s Science of Logic In contrast to the Romantic Spinozist philosophy of a dynamic Nature, Haas hails Brahms as a stasis loving Classicist, an anti-revolutionary, and rational-enlightened Liberal who felt that "unrestricted capital" would lead to "the general prosperity of the age" (Haas p45). Haas sees in the Brahmsian Hanslick, the antithesis of Wagnerian Romanticism. This is a grotesquely oversimplified position as any who has read The Idea of Absolute Music by Carl Dahlhaus will appreciate, but Haas seems not to have read the great Dahlhaus either, leaving one to wonder what academic background of any worth he has. Haas sees Hanslick's philosophical musical aesthetics as representing the: "...enlightened, outward-looking model of those rational ideals and beliefs typical of the age of Liberalism. He was dismissive of many of the emotive, as opposed to expressive, qualities that were beginning to define music in the latter half of the nineteenth century. His rigidly Rationalist view of art and music made him suspicious of showmanship and empty virtuosity, which, as we know from Wagner, was in itself often seen as a near diversionary tactic of Jewish instrumentalists. Hanslick's ideals harkened back to the purity of the age of classicism and had no time for the portentous matters of nation and spirit being crow-barred into music or, indeed, into opera." Haas, p48. In other words, the mind-numbingly reductive dualistic formula (he is no Derrida reader) is that Wagner represents irrational-romantic Nazism, but that Brahms represents rational-classical Liberalism. The one was a dynamic philosophy, the other static. The one anti-Semitic and the other philo-Semitic. The one evil and the other virtuous. Haas even says that: "... revolutions were fundamentally 'Romantic' in nature and brought periods of sober Classicism to an end." In other words, the Brahmsian Liberalism that supported "unrestricted capital" was a progressive classical-liberalism while Wagnerian socialism was regressive and lead straight to Nazism. The fundamental polemic, however, that Haas is driving out is this: "The obvious rallying point for the National Socialists was Wagner. Indeed, he was very much the Ur-National Socialist, having been, at different stages in his life, both a nationalist and a Socialist." Haas p218. The idiot's formula goes nationalist + socialist = National Socialist. The trouble is that by Haas's argument someone in Israel today who is both a pro-democratic patriot and a socialist would be a Nazi. Haas goes further by insinuating that socialists are all Nazis: "Wagner's view—not that different from issues Karl Marx was grappling with—was that Jews were avaricious capitalists and that giving them the same rights as Germans would not allow the new state to develop into the anti-capitalist society he envisaged, and for which he had fought on the Dresden barricades in 1848." Haas p23 Wagner and Marx are thus both proto-Nazis, hardly different from one another, making them equally Ur-National Socialists. National Socialism is a left wing movement according to Haas. Admittedly, as anyone familiar with Wagner's Fatherland Union Paper would know, there was a nationalistic component to Wagner's musket toting pro-democracy rally behind the barricades in Dresden together with his friend, Socialist Anarchist, Michael Bakunin: "... the daughter of a baker belonging to this particular barricade ... stood in sight of all, when ... a shot was suddenly heard, a piercing shriek, followed by the fall of the girlish patriot. ... Wagner seized a musket and mounting a cart called out aloud to all: “Men, will you see your wives and daughters fall in the cause of our beloved country, and not avenge their cowardly murder? All who have hearts, all who have the blood and spirit of their forefathers, and love their country follow me, and death to the tyrant.” " Praeger: Wagner as I Knew Him The insinuation Haas wants to make is that Wagner's participation in the Dresden pro-democratic revolutionary movement as a democratic socialist caused the rise of National Socialism and the Holocaust. As for Marx, Haas makes the argument that Marxism is just the same thing as National Socialism. Marx, Wagner and Hitler—to Haas they are all identical. National Socialism is, according to Haas, a predominantly "socialist" movement. The bottom line for Haas is that the political left were therefore responsible for WWII and the Holocaust. If only Germany had stuck with a right-wing Classical Liberalism supportive of "unrestricted capital" instead of embracing a dynamic and Spinozan Romanticism that lead to Hitler's enactment of grand opera on the world's stage. Yet, next thing, once again blindly following Viereck's misguided path, Haas completely contradicts everything he said: "Hitler, however, turned Wagner's view of the 'dynamic versus the static' onto its head and by 1935 had ushered in a period of stifling conventionalism." Haas, p40 Despite this, Haas makes it plainly clear that he blames Wagnerian Romanticism for having set the scene for the inevitable enactment of National Socialism on the stage of world history: "According to [Ludwig] Stein [the Jewish philosopher and theologian], it was implicit from [Houston] Chamberlain's writings that the world was now about to enter a new age of Romanticism [i.e. Nazism]: For the Romantic, nothing is more characteristic than worshipping at the cult of genius. Emotions are the progenitors of all values [...] yet the highest of all values is that of 'the genius'. ... The Romantic cries that the artist stands atop humanity as Nature stands atop a pedestal... an idea in which both Wagner and Schopenhauer luxuriate." Haas p180 In other words, Wagnerian romanticism set the stage for the histrionic performance of an irrational National Socialist operatic show on the world's stage. And this was the terrible result: "Nazi anti-Semitism, much of which was inspired by Wagner himself, had driven non-Jewish Germans to perform acts of cultural barbarity that would bankrupt for generations any ethical legacy bestowed by its greatest writers, artists and philosophers." Haas p273 The lecture goes that one must be a sober and rational Classical Liberal rather than fall into the trap of becoming an irrational Wagnerian socialist because that would only lead to one becoming a Nazi (National "Socialist"). The polemic against Wagner is merely an attempt to purge the political right of the sins of fascism by blame-shifting all responsibility for Nazism to the left. Little wonder that Haas conveniently skips over the fact that Theodor Herzl's favourite composer was Richard Wagner, and that Herzl felt he derived the inspirational energy to write his book, die Judenstaat (Jewish State) from listening obsessively to performances of Tannhäuser. Nor does Haas forget to mention Schenker—another one of his heroes whose hallowed name he utters in the same breath as Hanslick: "On the one side, there was Eduard Hanslick and Heinrich Schenker, who held to the ideals of classical sobriety and balance, along with the scholar Guido Adler [Anton Webern's PhD supervisor], who [like Webern and Schoenberg] chose to classify Wagner as a conservative, in stark contrast to the prevalent view of the time." Haas p69 (my asides) Such "classical sobriety" is the antithesis of hysterical Wagnerian Nazism, says Haas. Yet he conveniently forgets the fact that although Schenker was Jewish he initially supported Nazism: "The historical achievement of Hitler, the extermination of Marxism, will be celebrated by posterity (including the French, the English, and all exploiters of crimes against Germany) no less gratefully than the great deeds of the greatest Germans. If only a man were bom to music, who would finally exterminate the musical Marxists... [S]o where would one ever find the quantity of musical 'brownshirts' necessary to chase away the musical Marxists?" Schenker, letter 14th May 1933 quoted in The Schenker Project Once you see through the facile neoliberal polemic that Haas is running, it should hardly be necessary to explain the sheer absurdity of his position. It should be totally unnecessary to point out that the National Socialist Party only came to power through financial support from the industrialists and bankers who traditionally supported the political right. In the Weimar Reichstag, the National Socialists occupied the Tory position—the dominant right-wing party in opposition to the left formed by the SPD and KPD. The Nazi use of the word "socialist", is more like the use of the term "liberal" in the phrase "neoliberalism" (of the kind associated with Margaret Thatcher) or as in the "liberal" of the conservative Liberal Party that Brahms supported. The dominant Tory parties of both Japan and Australia are both called the "Liberal" party for this reason. The phrase "socialism" in National Socialism likewise represents a perverted form of socialism that was more like a hateful and harshly reactionary populist (Völkisch) movement that claimed to be the "true voice of the people (Volk)". It is a right-wing populism that is beginning to see an alarming resurgence both in Europe as well as the rest of the world. To see the rest of this in-depth critique (esp. regarding Schoenberg and Adorno) see: my link text

  8. 4 out of 5

    Mike

    Very detailed, with a great number of extracts from interesting critical reviews of the day, along with a great deal of historical information. Consequently by the time I'd got halfway through we still hadn't reached the point where the Jewish composers were being banned. I should have finished it, but didn't.

  9. 4 out of 5

    Lulu

    Fascinating and heartbreaking. I read it on recommendation as research. It is unfortunately easy to forget the determined, callous, constructed nature of the hatred so casually hefted into use by the Nazis. And chilling to read words that seem in at least some part relevant still to our current times.

  10. 4 out of 5

    Mills College Library

    780.92202 H1125 2013

  11. 4 out of 5

    Rana Gediz Iren

  12. 5 out of 5

    Stella Zawistowski

  13. 5 out of 5

    JOHN NILES

  14. 4 out of 5

    Yossi Khebzou

  15. 4 out of 5

    Gideon Dabi

  16. 4 out of 5

    Tracy

  17. 5 out of 5

    David Headland

  18. 4 out of 5

    Patrick

  19. 4 out of 5

    Sofia Larsson Lindqvist

  20. 4 out of 5

    Marley Dubrow

  21. 5 out of 5

    Jessica Samples

  22. 4 out of 5

    James Wegener

  23. 5 out of 5

    Deborah Campbell

  24. 5 out of 5

    Bonnie

  25. 5 out of 5

    Fred Kass

  26. 5 out of 5

    Elise Klarenbeek

  27. 4 out of 5

    V

  28. 4 out of 5

    Alex

  29. 4 out of 5

    Teodoro Gomezdelatorre

  30. 5 out of 5

    Emily

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