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Shiloh, 1862

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Offers a detailed account of the Battle of Shiloh, a turning point when both the Union and the Confederacy realized the grand scale of the conflict, the large number of casualties to be expected, and that the war would not end quickly.


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Offers a detailed account of the Battle of Shiloh, a turning point when both the Union and the Confederacy realized the grand scale of the conflict, the large number of casualties to be expected, and that the war would not end quickly.

30 review for Shiloh, 1862

  1. 5 out of 5

    Lawyer

    Shiloh, 1862: Winston Groom's history of the battle of Shiloh The Hornet's Nest, "War means fightin'. Fightin' means killin'."--Nathan Bedford Forrest I'll be the first to admit as much of it as I have read, some military histories can be duller than dishwater. There are authors of that vast genre that I avoid for that reason. But Winston Groom doesn't fall into that category. Although I first came to appreciate Groom as a novelist, I've come to admire him more as a historian. Shiloh, 1862 is hi Shiloh, 1862: Winston Groom's history of the battle of Shiloh The Hornet's Nest, "War means fightin'. Fightin' means killin'."--Nathan Bedford Forrest I'll be the first to admit as much of it as I have read, some military histories can be duller than dishwater. There are authors of that vast genre that I avoid for that reason. But Winston Groom doesn't fall into that category. Although I first came to appreciate Groom as a novelist, I've come to admire him more as a historian. Shiloh, 1862 is his finest work yet. A battle the magnitude of Shiloh was inevitable. However, politicians, military leaders and civilians had no baseline in American history to anticipate how long and grim the American Civil War would become until news of what had happened in a mere day and a half had happened near a small Methodist Church known as Shiloh in Northwest, Tennessee, on April 6 and 7, 1862. In Hebrew Shiloh means "place of peace." When the final shot was fired, more Americans had been killed in one confrontation than during the American Revolution, the War of 1812, and the Mexican War. The butcher's bill was over 25,000 killed, wounded, and captured, split roughly equally between the North and South. U.S. Grant and William Sherman had been surprised by Beauregard and Johnson. The Union position had not been fortified prior to the attack. If Shiloh accomplished anything for Grant and Johnson it would be their unwillingness to ever be surprised again. Shiloh also led both men to form the philosophy that, having seen the determined fighting of Southern soldiers, the war would last until the South was completely subjugated. And that is what happened. The tactics of Jomini and Napoleon still reigned supreme on the battlefield, although advancement in military technology had outstripped outdated tactics resulting in ever increasing body counts. Perhaps because Groom began as a novelist, he brings a different perspective to his works of history. For here you find the voices of Ambrose Bierce, Lew Wallace, Henry Stanley, mingled with the words of Elsie Duncan Hunt whose Unionist family was caught in the middle of the Shiloh battlefield. This is not a mere recapitulation of facts but a living recreation of the first major conflict that brought the startling knowledge to the American people this was not a war that would be decided by one devastating battle. Highly, highly recommended.

  2. 5 out of 5

    Joseph

    This is, without a doubt, the best single volume treatment of the battle to date. The author takes up the late, great Shelby Foote's mantle and runs with it. We get to know several key participants in the battle, including Confederate Henry Morton Stanley, later made famous by his discovery of Dr. Livingstone in Africa. The narrative is brisk, lively and at times almost poetic, if a book about Civil War combat can be classed as such. If you are just beginning your personal Civil War odyssey, thi This is, without a doubt, the best single volume treatment of the battle to date. The author takes up the late, great Shelby Foote's mantle and runs with it. We get to know several key participants in the battle, including Confederate Henry Morton Stanley, later made famous by his discovery of Dr. Livingstone in Africa. The narrative is brisk, lively and at times almost poetic, if a book about Civil War combat can be classed as such. If you are just beginning your personal Civil War odyssey, this book should definitely be on your list.

  3. 5 out of 5

    Mike

    Until Sunday, April 6th, 1862 the Union and Confederate forces had fought several battles but neither side had an inkling of how much blood would be demanded to rid our country of the scourge of slavery. After Shiloh, the butcher’s bill would become clear. The nation will pay dearly. From a Union colonel who fought on that day: In his diary, Camm had written, “April 6th. Began with a bright, beautiful morning. The trees were budding, the birds were singing but none of us dreamed what a dark and Until Sunday, April 6th, 1862 the Union and Confederate forces had fought several battles but neither side had an inkling of how much blood would be demanded to rid our country of the scourge of slavery. After Shiloh, the butcher’s bill would become clear. The nation will pay dearly. From a Union colonel who fought on that day: In his diary, Camm had written, “April 6th. Began with a bright, beautiful morning. The trees were budding, the birds were singing but none of us dreamed what a dark and bloody ending the day would have. It was a morning for lambs to gambol on. As we saw it last that evening, a great red globe of blood.” I so wanted to give 5 Stars to Shiloh, 1862 but had to reduce it one. The book is excellent in many ways but I wanted more on the battle. Groom covers the first day of Shiloh well but skimps on the second and subsequent days. You will find many fascinating participants in this battle. Of course, Grant and Sherman made their names here and began a long, successful and bloody partnership before war’s end. Henry Halleck is here, and what a backstabbing political general he is. Grant will suffer humiliations from this man and yet was unaware of how Halleck was denigrating him behind his back. Grant, unfortunately, trusted Halleck. If Grant had one notable fault it was that he too often failed to discern the true character of his fellow men. This bedeviled his entire career, especially after he became President of the United States. Groom begins his book with a brief but thorough review of how the nation came to the point of civil war, explaining the political background, the players, the differences between north and south, etc. Groom also takes time to cover the personal backgrounds of the major participants from entering West Point and fighting in the Mexican-American war in the late 1840’s. Both the Union and Confederate generals and politicians are covered in some detail. The start of the war and events that lead up to the battle at Shiloh are dealt with in sufficient detail without becoming boring. While the battle doesn’t actually begin until page 190 in the hardcover, he keeps you interested right up to there. I was very intrigued by the partnership of Admiral Foote and Grant in the taking of the two forts: Fort Henry and Fort Donelson. The application of joint warfare begins as Foote uses timber-clad and ironclad river boats to attack the forts and open up waterways that will enable raids deep into the South. The action is spellbinding and dramatic: (view spoiler)[ Foote’s flagship Cincinnati received 32 hits from the fort. “Her chimneys, after-cabin, and boats were completely riddled,” Walke said. “I happened to be looking at the flag-steamer when one of the enemy’s heavy shot struck her. It had the effect of a thunder-bolt, ripping her side timbers and scattering the splinters over the vessel.” Foote did not slacken speed but instead brought the three remaining ironclads nearer to the fort, and nearer yet, until he was standing within the almost unheard of distance of 200 yards, where he defiantly exchanged shot and shell with the Rebel artillery. Inside the fort the Rebel Captain Taylor was almost at the end of his rope. He had started the fight with eight 32-pounder cannons, two 42-pounders, and one 128-pounder, known as a Columbiad. He also had five l8-pounder siege guns as well as the dangerous rifled Whitworth gun that could crack a level shot a mile and more with terrifying accuracy. (hide spoiler)] Groom uses the experiences of many soldiers in the battle to help drive the narrative. One of these is someone you know very well…Mr. Stanley of “Dr. Livingstone, I presume?” fame. Stanley is a line infantry soldier in one of the Confederate brigades. Here is part of his account of the battle leading up to the key “Hornet’s Nest” engagement: (view spoiler)[ By the time he recovered, his brigade had marched on out of sight, and it was left for Stanley to overtake it, which led him on his own chilling odyssey down the butcher’s path. When he recovered from the shock of being struck by the spent bullet, Stanley had remained on the ground for a period of time, exhausted; then he crawled to a tree and ate ravenously from his haversack for the first time since dawn. Now, with the sun high in the sky, he “struck north in the direction which my regiment had taken, over ground strewn with the bodies and the debris of war. “The ghastly relics,” Stanley said, “appalled every sense.” Somehow he felt curious to see who among his comrades had fallen and quickly came upon the body of ”a stout English sergeant of a neighboring company. . . conspicuous for his good humor, and nicknamed John Bull.” Next to him was a young lieutenant who “judging by the gloss on his uniform must have been some father’s darling. A clean bullet hole in the center of his forehead had ended his’ career.” Soon Stanley came upon about 20 bodies, “lying in various postures, each by its own pool of viscous blood, which emitted a peculiar scent, which was new to me then. Beyond these, a still larger group lay, body overlying body. The company opposed to them must have shot straight.” He lumbered on, shuddering at the sight of “those wide open dead eyes,” ruminating much later that this “was the first Field of Glory I had ever seen . . . and the first time Glory sickened me with its repulsive aspect, and made me suspect it was all a glittering lie.” Trudging on through the woods toward the racket of gunfire where his brigade was fighting, Stanley “moved, horror-stricken, through the fearful shamble where the dead lay as thick as sleepers in a London Park on a bank holiday.” (hide spoiler)] The account of the “Hornet’s Nest”, not nearly as well known as “The Devil’s Den” of Gettysburg fame, is perhaps even bloodier and more terrifying. Braxton Bragg shatters several brigades in attacking this natural defensive point. The accounts of this will break your heart as so many brave men go to die, yet are accused of cowardice as the units try to regroup after terrible losses. Finally, the Confederates gather sufficient forces to attack and all the leadership comes to lead the charge: (view spoiler)[ Certainly there was no more star-studded brigade charge in the history of the Civil War—leading in the center Albert Sidney Johnston, the highest ranking field officer in the Confederate army; leading on the left the former Vice President of the United States John Cabell Breckinridge, and on the right the Confederate governor of Tennessee, Isham Harris, pistol in hand. As Preston Johnston told it: “A sheet of flame burst from the Federal stronghold, and blazed along the crest of the ridge. The line moved forward at a charge with rapid and restless step. There was a roar of cannon and musketry; a storm of lead and iron hail. The Confederate line withered, and the dead and dying strewed the dark valley. But there was not an instant’s pause. Right up the steep they went. The crest was gained.” The Peach Orchard lay before them, now almost stripped of blossoms, and they went in at the double-quick; driving the Federal forces with the bayonet. Augustus Mecklin and his 15th Mississippi were among them. “Many of our boys fell in this fatal charge, he said. “Never was there such firing.” (hide spoiler)] Groom speaks of Albert S Johnston, Jefferson Davis’s hope for a winning leader in the west. I would have liked to see more of why Johnston was considered so good. P.G.T. Beauregard, present at so many key points up until this battle was another character of interest. He caused many unnecessary deaths with his penchant for Napoleonic tactics. This battle would prove how wrong that approach was. The nation was shocked, on both sides, at the terrible losses at Shiloh. Yet, many more “Shiloh’s” would take place before the end of the war. Reading about this first, terrible battle is a must and made much clearer in Groom’s book. His maps deserve particular note, finally a historian who gets it—we like maps of battles that are easy to read. Excellent book.

  4. 4 out of 5

    George

    an extremely well written account of what was the bloodiest battle in American history, up to that point. More Americans died in that battle than in all of America's previous wars combined, and more than had died in the Civil War up to that point. Unfortunately, Antietam eventually took that honor, which it retains to this day. The book is intended for a general audience, rather than for dyed in the wool Civil War buffs. So, there's a great deal of effort into providing context to the battle and an extremely well written account of what was the bloodiest battle in American history, up to that point. More Americans died in that battle than in all of America's previous wars combined, and more than had died in the Civil War up to that point. Unfortunately, Antietam eventually took that honor, which it retains to this day. The book is intended for a general audience, rather than for dyed in the wool Civil War buffs. So, there's a great deal of effort into providing context to the battle and a very nice job introducing the main actors, along with a bevy of folks who were just there including some quite famous later on like Ambrose Bierce, Henry Stanley and Lew Wallace. However, there's plenty for Civil War buffs to sink their teeth into as well, and it's just a great read, regardless of your background. As noted, this wasn't Grant's shining hour as he didn't really expect fierce Southern resistance and absolutely failed to prepare for it. Neither did Sherman for that matter who steadfastly refused to accept repeated incoming reports of heavy Southern forces converging on Shiloh. But there was no shortage of poor preparation for the attack and very poor planning for the attack itself by the Southern commander Albert Sidney Johnston, largely regarded in the South as their single greatest commander up to his death in this battle. However, Grant refused to panic and gave all his attention to a massive counterattack on the second day, which was entirely unanticipated and knocked the Southern forces off the field. The battle also introduced Grant and Sherman and forged one of the greatest military relationships in history. The battle scenes are extremely powerful and well done and retain the ability to affect the reader viscerally. The after battle scenes are also both moving and informative and help the more informal reader form an understanding of the importance of the battle towards the outcome of the war. Plus,there's a very nice summary of what happened to the various participants after the battle and the war and a particularly nice part on the creation of the national battlefield park late in the century. all in all, highly recommended.

  5. 5 out of 5

    happy

    I've read several of Groom's histories and I really like his writing style. Very informative, but most if not all civil war buffs probably won't learn much new. I like way he uses the memoirs and diaries of several people (both low and high ranking) as the backbone of the story and I think it is very effective, for me at least. Also Groom doesn't just tell the story of those two days in April, he traces how both Armies got there. The actual descriptions of the battle don't start until about 1/3 I've read several of Groom's histories and I really like his writing style. Very informative, but most if not all civil war buffs probably won't learn much new. I like way he uses the memoirs and diaries of several people (both low and high ranking) as the backbone of the story and I think it is very effective, for me at least. Also Groom doesn't just tell the story of those two days in April, he traces how both Armies got there. The actual descriptions of the battle don't start until about 1/3 of the way in. I think this book is aimed for the general/casual reader not a serious civil war buff One nit pick - he doesn't footnote

  6. 4 out of 5

    Sean Chick

    Groom's Shiloh is by no means an exact blow by blow account of the battle. Rather it is a well written narrative that uses human stories of the participants to give a general account of the battle. It works as a readable narrative, although I am sure many scholars will take exception to its more traditional account focused on the Hornet's Nest and the fighting nearby. Still, this is a great introduction to the battle because Groom's writing draws a reader into the story and has more fire and blo Groom's Shiloh is by no means an exact blow by blow account of the battle. Rather it is a well written narrative that uses human stories of the participants to give a general account of the battle. It works as a readable narrative, although I am sure many scholars will take exception to its more traditional account focused on the Hornet's Nest and the fighting nearby. Still, this is a great introduction to the battle because Groom's writing draws a reader into the story and has more fire and blood than colder accounts. In other words, not exactly great history, but effective at what it sets out to do.

  7. 5 out of 5

    Steven Peterson

    A number of good accounts of the bloody battle at Shiloh in the Civil War have been written. Authors whose books I have read and appreciated include: Larry Daniels, Wiley Sword, and Edward Cunningham. Do we need another book on the subject? I think that Winston Croom's book, "Shiloh 1862," makes its own contribution. It is not so much the original insights into the battle, but the literate rendering of the story and the human side of the battle that Croom describes. First, the book is literate an A number of good accounts of the bloody battle at Shiloh in the Civil War have been written. Authors whose books I have read and appreciated include: Larry Daniels, Wiley Sword, and Edward Cunningham. Do we need another book on the subject? I think that Winston Croom's book, "Shiloh 1862," makes its own contribution. It is not so much the original insights into the battle, but the literate rendering of the story and the human side of the battle that Croom describes. First, the book is literate and well written, a "good read." Second, some reviewers think that there is too much background. I believe that one cannot understand Shiloh without understanding Confederate reverses and Mill Spring and Forts Henry and Donelson. In addition, the nature of key leaders and forces need to be understood. The Western Confederacy had a strange mix of generals--from the testy and unpleasant Braxton Bragg to the grandiose Pierre G. T. Beauregard to the well regarded Albert Sidney Johnston to frauds like Generals Floyd and Pillow. On the Union side? U. S. Grant and William Sherman and "Old Brains," Henry Halleck. Without an understanding of such factors, a book about Shiloh does not have adequate context. Third, the book's examination of preparation for the battle provides adequate detail. Beauregard's first plan and then his variations and then his cold feet. Many on the Confederate side felt that they had lost all chance of surprising the Union forces arrayed on the plain about Pittsburg Landing. But Union generals tended to discount any such evidence of a gathering of forces against them. The book does a good job outlining the Confederate attack, the Union response. We see some commanders performing well on both sides and others floundering. This part of the story is well told, although I did not note much that was brand new. Nonetheless, the book provides a fine survey of the battle for someone wanting to get up to speed. All in all, a fine volume, well written.

  8. 4 out of 5

    Derek Weese

    I really liked 'Shrouds of Glory' and 'A Storm in Flanders' by Winston Groom. I thought both books were excellent and both have earned 're-read' status which means I keep them. This one, however... Well, it was well written. Groom is a hell of a writer, and the book, if I had not already read many books on Shiloh, would have been wonderful. Sadly it failed to meet my exacting standards. And that's ok. Let me explain. Groom admitted he did not set out to write a detailed military history of the bat I really liked 'Shrouds of Glory' and 'A Storm in Flanders' by Winston Groom. I thought both books were excellent and both have earned 're-read' status which means I keep them. This one, however... Well, it was well written. Groom is a hell of a writer, and the book, if I had not already read many books on Shiloh, would have been wonderful. Sadly it failed to meet my exacting standards. And that's ok. Let me explain. Groom admitted he did not set out to write a detailed military history of the battle, I didn't know that ('Shrouds of Glory' was a quite detailed look at Hood's Tennessee Campaign and a hell of a read) so when I bought it a couple of years ago (yeah, only know getting to it) I was disappointed. Despite the sesquicentennial of the Civil War, and the mass of books published thus far, most of them have been let downs. The focus has been the 'social' side of the war (what some would call the politically correct side) and the military end has been a bit neglected. Thus, the person who pines for a detailed military accounting of the Battle of Shiloh that actually doesn't skimp on the all crucial second day of battle...will be still disappointed. I was that guy. While it was well written, and certainly engaging, I could not help but feel highly annoyed at the lack of detailed military coverage. (I'm a military analyst so I tend to thrive on these things) So if you're, like me, looking for a detailed, analytical while still well written account on the Battle of Shiloh and its larger strategic impact for the war, you'll be disappointed. However, if you're new to the Civil War, or military history in general, don't care about analysis, or simply want a well written, factual story: then by all means grab this book as, for pure entertainment and enlightenment, it is wonderful. I hesitate giving this a negative review, hence three stars which is a compromise and me conditioning, with this review, why only three. Again, it's Groom so of course it's going to be well written and the man does have a knack with words that I truly wish other historians shared. It's just that he never planned on doing a Wiley Sword type treatment of the Battle of Shiloh which is what I was looking for. So the fault lies with me, not this book or the author. For someone knew to the battle, this is a good one. But if you're a seasoned veteran already, or not looking for a strictly story based work, then look elsewhere.

  9. 4 out of 5

    Stephen

    Although I’ve been aware of the small Winston Groom collection of Civil War books in my home library for years, I’ve never thought to read them because I invariably associate Groom with Forrest Gump; not exactly the expected pedegree for an historian. But Friday afternoon I made a snap decision to visit the Shiloh battlefield, and Groom’s Shiloh 1862 seemed the best guide available. The book proved a pleasant surprise, with extensive background information and much drawing-from first hand resour Although I’ve been aware of the small Winston Groom collection of Civil War books in my home library for years, I’ve never thought to read them because I invariably associate Groom with Forrest Gump; not exactly the expected pedegree for an historian. But Friday afternoon I made a snap decision to visit the Shiloh battlefield, and Groom’s Shiloh 1862 seemed the best guide available. The book proved a pleasant surprise, with extensive background information and much drawing-from first hand resources. That’ll learn me to judge a book by its author, I suppose! Shiloh 1862 proved extremely readable; it’s narrative-driven popular history, with lots of human interest stories (sourced from diaries of the time) and biographies of some of the more prominent generals. Groom first explores the background of the battle itself — why it was fought, and where. The ‘why’ begins before the conflict even starts, with Groom chronicling the sectional conflicts within the States , particularly the growing sense in the South that the north was out to ruin it with tariffs and attacks on the plantation-slavery system that controlled southern politics. Groom notes that in April 1862, the war was not quite a year old, and many still thought one good battle would end the conflict, as if it were a duel for honor, and the parties might retire once shots had been discharged. The Federal army in the west had already been successful in undermining the long-term success of the Confederacy by April 1862, in establishing control of the Tennessee River and sending the Confederate army in retreat from Kentucky as a consequence. Now, using the river, the Federal army moved to invade the deep south itself — by landing in southwestern Tennessee, 20 miles from a prominent rail intersection in Mississippi. A strike against the rails in Corinth would sever the South’s only complete east-west line, and make it easier for the Federal army to establish control of the Mississippi river, splitting the Confederacy in two. The Confederate army in the west moved to crush the growing Federal force before it grew larger and fortified. Thus the armies converged on the plains and hills around Pittsburg Landing, a site chosen by he Federals because the undulating terrain and marshy areas that greatly restricted avenues of attack. Perhaps because the terrain itself was so forboding, the Federal army’s masters did not bother to fortify — and they didn’t take seriously hints that the southerners were on the move. The Confederate army, led by General Albert Sidney Johnson, aimed to strike hard and fast at the dozing Yanks, to push them away from their river-lifeline and into the swamps. Weather and logistical hiccoughs bogged the army down, though, by at least a full day – a ‘fatal’ delay, Groom notes for reasons we later understand. The terrain made it difficult to maintain reliable communications, and once a Union patrol encountered the marching force at Farley Field and the battle commenced, Johnston was forcibly reminded of Napoleon’s maxim: no plan survives contact with the enemy. The Confederates had intended to maximize pressure on the Union left, driving them away from the river — but through miscommunication, instead devoted most of their resources to the Union right. Once a massive artillery battery finally broke the Union center — after six hours of stolid defense by midwestern farmboys — the Federal army was pushed into a tight circle around the landing — and there, across the water in the late afternoon, were reinforcements from General Buell — and back at the hornet’s nest, the Confederate general lay dying. His successor, General Beauregard, believed the Yankees whipped — and, also believing that Buell had marched to Decatur (185 miles away), he was content to call it a day. The next morning. the enlarged and reinvigorated Union army launched a punishing counterattack that saw the Confederates pull back from their previous day’s gains. After two days of hard fighting, all that had been accomplished was the death of 24,000 men. Groom captures the chaos and desperation of the military aspect, but it’s not the only part of the story. He also covers the battle’s effects on the people who lived around the landing, the farmers whose livelihoods and homes were destroyed, whose children were at risk. So much firepower was active across those woods and plains that there was seemingly no safe place to be; one wounded man, trying to limp to the rear to be tended to, return to his captain and pled: “Cap, give me a rifle. This blamed battle ain’t got a rear!”. Another young soldier, helping his best friend off the field, was shocked to discover when they found shelter that his soon-to-perish friend had been shot seven times. A prevailing theme is that of confusion, which started as the armies tried to get into place and worsened as the action started: men fought in regiments that were not theirs, and often times officers would command makeshift brigades of whatever troops happened to be in the vicinity. The Hornet’s Nest defenders were a makeshift bunch: one Union participant wasn’t even a combatant, but in the initial southern move he’d been separated from his father — leading an Ohio unit — and the young musician quickly had to pick up a musket and fight for his life alongside men he’d never seen before. Perhaps no story captures the confusion better than one Union officer seeking out a major and pleading with him for direction — where are our men, where do we go — only to hear the major’s soft reply and realize: he was a Confederate officer, just as dazed and at a loss as his ‘enemy’. (This early, Confederate uniforms were varied and sometimes confusing: blue state militia uniforms might be mistaken as Federal uniforms, and get them fired on. One sad instance of that appears here, when regiments from Arkansas and Louisiana attacked one another.) A joy to read despite its brutal subject, Shiloh 1862 has been a lesson for me in several ways. I’ll have to look into more of Groom’s work if my ACW mood persists! I actually read part of this book on the battlefield itself, though my progress in the book rarely aligned with my progress touring.

  10. 4 out of 5

    Sweetwilliam

    This book is as easy to read as Forest Gump. I am an avid history reader and I do enjoy most of the comprehensive and academic histories that I read. The challenge is to write a detailed history and not lose the reader. Winston Groom has proven once again that he can do this. I have read several accounts of the battle of Shiloh. It never ceases to amaze me is the magnitude and destructiveness of this battle. It was the first great blood bath of the Civil War. Winston Groom uses several first-ha This book is as easy to read as Forest Gump. I am an avid history reader and I do enjoy most of the comprehensive and academic histories that I read. The challenge is to write a detailed history and not lose the reader. Winston Groom has proven once again that he can do this. I have read several accounts of the battle of Shiloh. It never ceases to amaze me is the magnitude and destructiveness of this battle. It was the first great blood bath of the Civil War. Winston Groom uses several first-hand accounts and direct quotes to give the reader the perspective of the participants. Grooms’ writing is effortless and not choppy like other pieces I’ve read about the same period. Groom admitted to eliminating ellipses and he "fiddled" with punctuation to make the direct quotes flow. Groom said "My thinking is that people living 150 years ago spoke a somewhat different language than we do today, and sometimes it needs to be adjusted slightly to make it clear." I enjoyed all the first-hand accounts including the account of the great explorer of Africa, Henry Morten Stanley, a private in the Confederate infantry. Stanley advanced with a Rebel unit until he was struck with a bullet that was stopped by his belt buckle. The bullet knocked Stanley down and put him out of the battle for a short period of time. After which, he would try to catch up with the advance of his unit by following the trail of corpses. Another account told the story of Grant’s quartermaster who rode up to the battle with Grant. He asked if it was raining because he could hear what he thought were the sounds of rain drops falling on the leaves in the trees. He was told that it wasn’t raining and that those sounds are bullets! Groom also used a recently uncovered diary of a woman from a border state. Her first-hand account gave us the perspective of the civilians from the Border States. Many had family members, friends, and neighbors fighting on both sides at Shiloh. The war would make this well-to-do family destitute before the war’s end. They would never recover. I had not realized what a jealous, back stabber Halleck was towards Grant and Grant had no idea. Thank God Lincoln, thirsty for a fighter and a winner (a difficult combination) challenged Halleck when he and McClellan had Grant relieved after Grant’s early victories. Winston Groom determined the reason behind Grant’s dismissal to be the green goddess of envy. Lincoln, who called Halleck a first rate clerk, challenged him to produce the evidence. There was no evidence and Grant was reinstated. Halleck would attempt to sack Grant a second time at the conclusion of Shiloh. This time Grant would be saved by the sacking of McClellan. His firing pulled the jealous and worthless bureaucrat Halleck to Washington. Groom was also very critical of the Confederate General Beauregard for his conduct during the battle. According to Groom, the battle had a chance of being a southern victory had he stuck to Albert Sidney Johnston’s battle plan. Instead, Beauregard would send every unit toward the sound of the hardest fighting. This is something that he thought his hero Napoleon would have done. If Beauregard would have saved a few units to separate Grant’s army from the Tennessee River or if he would have committed to a night attack, the Rebels had a chance. It was Albert Sidney Johnston’s battle plan to drive a wedge between Grant’s army and the Tennessee River and then to drive the Blue Bellies from the landing into Owl creek. Instead, Johnston curiously turned tactical control of the battle over to Beauregard. Johnston went to the front and acted like a divisional commander. He would be wounded and bled to death that day. The chivalrous Johnston had sent his personal surgeon off to treat Union prisoners. A simple tourniquet would have saved his life. Meanwhile, Grant knew he had the battle won when night fell and his army was still on the field in a defensive posture. Sherman and Grant had the following exchange which says much to Grant’s character: ‘Well, Grant’ Sherman said to his friend, ‘we’ve had the devil’s own day, haven’t we?’ ‘Yes,’ replied Grant, ‘lick ’em tomorrow, though.’ With Don Carlos Buell’s Army of the Cumberland and Lew Wallace’s lost Division coming up the outcome of the battle was a foregone conclusion. Winston Groom brings 1862 back to life. I thought this book was nearly as good as Kearny's March. It reads as smooth as historical fiction. It is an easy read and a good read.

  11. 4 out of 5

    Robert

    When I was 12, I started reading Bruce Catton's books on the Civil War. A few years ago, I read Jeff Sharah's novel on Gettysburg. That has been the extent of my reading about the Civil War. I was attracted to Mr. Groom's history of the battle Shiloh because of the role it played in the ascent of Grant's career. I found the book well written and brilliantly organized for the layperson with minimal background in the battles of the Civil War. I appreciated the way the author incorporated the diari When I was 12, I started reading Bruce Catton's books on the Civil War. A few years ago, I read Jeff Sharah's novel on Gettysburg. That has been the extent of my reading about the Civil War. I was attracted to Mr. Groom's history of the battle Shiloh because of the role it played in the ascent of Grant's career. I found the book well written and brilliantly organized for the layperson with minimal background in the battles of the Civil War. I appreciated the way the author incorporated the diaries of the civilians living in the proximity of the battlefield into his story as well as the writings of some of the soldiers. Mr. Groom's brief summaries of the subsequent careers of the main protagonists in the battle made them made it possible to understand them as humans and not just soldiers. As far as the tactics of the Confederates and the Union generals, the author gives enough analysis so I could understand the thinking behind the successive infantry charges into massed defenders who had enormous firepower. I still cannot imagine how so many soldiers could advance with elan to their almost certain deaths. But thanks to Mr. Grooms's prose I can visualize the horrific battle scenes.

  12. 5 out of 5

    Karen

    Lots of good historical context as well as clear explanations of how the battle unfolded. Keeps second-guessing and what-ifs to a minimum. Another great addition: accounts from civilians in the area as well the views of ordinary soldiers.

  13. 5 out of 5

    Angus McKeogh

    Groom’s approach of describing the battle in terms of memoirs, stories, diaries, and official records was great. And it’s flabbergasting how the Confederate Army was able to snatch defeat from the jaws of victory in this battle. Reminds me of an underdog sports team facing the New York Yankees. The Yankees can have 2 hits, face a no hitter until the ninth inning, commit 8 errors, and they’ll somehow squeak out a one run victory. The Confederate brass bungled this battle so badly yet had numerous Groom’s approach of describing the battle in terms of memoirs, stories, diaries, and official records was great. And it’s flabbergasting how the Confederate Army was able to snatch defeat from the jaws of victory in this battle. Reminds me of an underdog sports team facing the New York Yankees. The Yankees can have 2 hits, face a no hitter until the ninth inning, commit 8 errors, and they’ll somehow squeak out a one run victory. The Confederate brass bungled this battle so badly yet had numerous opportunities to walk away with a massive victory and somehow still managed to lose. Really engaging stuff.

  14. 5 out of 5

    Kenneth

    Well written, with plenty of detail. Perhaps holding the book back was the reality that this was yet another lost opportunity, fought to a stalemate, wasted chance that seemed to define so many battles of this bloody civil war. It is well narrated, and interesting to follow on the CD audio. I think that the only drawback is that the author makes the common mistake of "oversharing" by relating as much back round information that he can possibly unload on the reader about anything possibly related t Well written, with plenty of detail. Perhaps holding the book back was the reality that this was yet another lost opportunity, fought to a stalemate, wasted chance that seemed to define so many battles of this bloody civil war. It is well narrated, and interesting to follow on the CD audio. I think that the only drawback is that the author makes the common mistake of "oversharing" by relating as much back round information that he can possibly unload on the reader about anything possibly related to the battle and combatants as possible. Interesting stuff, but it does expand the book whether you want it or not.

  15. 5 out of 5

    Jay Wright

    I wish Groom used cites like most historians This is not a scholarly work without proper citations. That aside. It is well researched and well written. In that one battle, the casualties were greater than the Wars before it combined. Groom does a good job in getting into the weeds. It was horrible and why war is such a bad thing. To understand the War in the West, this is an excellent source and it reads more like a novel than a textbook.

  16. 4 out of 5

    William J.

    This is an excellent book! Mr. Groom does a great job setting the stage for the battle, documenting the battle and explaining the impacts of the battle. He portrays the important characters clearly and places fault where it should lay. Grant, Sheridan, Buell, Lew Wallace all face criticism on the Union side. Sydney Johnston and Beauregard get their share of blame on the Confederate side. The maps are good although all at the front of the book and I like that the author included an Order of Battl This is an excellent book! Mr. Groom does a great job setting the stage for the battle, documenting the battle and explaining the impacts of the battle. He portrays the important characters clearly and places fault where it should lay. Grant, Sheridan, Buell, Lew Wallace all face criticism on the Union side. Sydney Johnston and Beauregard get their share of blame on the Confederate side. The maps are good although all at the front of the book and I like that the author included an Order of Battle down to the battalion level. For Civil War buffs, this is a good read!

  17. 5 out of 5

    Tom Emory Jr.

    Tom Emory, Jr. Review -- History books, to my way of thinking, are written in two styles: Woven and Patchwork Quilt. Woven works best on a single event because the author can move back-and-forth, in-and-out easily and tell the story in a chronological fashion. "Shiloh, 1862" is (again, to my way of thinking) written in a Patchwork Quilt manner. Author/Historian Winston Groom takes all the elements of this Civil War battle -- persons, personalities, strategy, movements, units -- and beautifully p Tom Emory, Jr. Review -- History books, to my way of thinking, are written in two styles: Woven and Patchwork Quilt. Woven works best on a single event because the author can move back-and-forth, in-and-out easily and tell the story in a chronological fashion. "Shiloh, 1862" is (again, to my way of thinking) written in a Patchwork Quilt manner. Author/Historian Winston Groom takes all the elements of this Civil War battle -- persons, personalities, strategy, movements, units -- and beautifully places them in a pattern that tells a single story but connects them to each other and manages to tell the story of this first great conflict of the War Between the States. Like Gettysburg over a year later, Shiloh began as a mistake with Union and Rebel forces sort of stumbling into a major battle. Also like Gettysburg, Shiloh had a high-water mark for the Confederate forces. The Rebels arguably won the first day of the two-day battle but the death of Confederate General Albert Sidney Johnson from a freakish and survivable wound likely was a determining factor in the Rebel loss at Shiloh. Although Union Gen. U.S. Grant was both determined and lucky, Johnson was considered the best of the Confederate generals. "Shiloh, 1862" is not necessarily an easy read for a Civil War novice, but a reader with a background in the names and places of Civil War history will find the book interesting and a good use of your time.

  18. 5 out of 5

    Donna

    Being a Civil War buff, I'll read almost anything new that is published on the various battles. Groom's book takes a new look at the battle of Shiloh fought in April 1862--the first big battle of the Civil War. While primarily a military focus, Groom makes good use of diaries, letters and post-war memoirs to give life to individuals on the battle field. The intertwined emotions of fear and bravado come across clearly as men who have never been in battle before must look the enemy in the eye as h Being a Civil War buff, I'll read almost anything new that is published on the various battles. Groom's book takes a new look at the battle of Shiloh fought in April 1862--the first big battle of the Civil War. While primarily a military focus, Groom makes good use of diaries, letters and post-war memoirs to give life to individuals on the battle field. The intertwined emotions of fear and bravado come across clearly as men who have never been in battle before must look the enemy in the eye as he is advancing toward them. Many histories focus on the generals; this one gives ample time for the privates. My biggest complaint (and this is true of most history books) is that there is a lack of maps. Yes, there are overall battlefield maps in the front, but when you are going to dissect a battle movement-by-movement and identify individual companies as they become engaged, then I really need more maps (even small ones) to indicate where we are. Overall - recommended.

  19. 4 out of 5

    Caleb

    Groom tries here to be Shelby Foote and only succeeds sometimes. The book has a clunky beginning, but brought itself together in the second half.

  20. 4 out of 5

    Randal Jr.

    This is a fascinating Civil War book focused entirely on bushwhackers and Confederate guerrilla warfare, including their interaction with regular troops on both sides of the war.

  21. 5 out of 5

    Mark

    I found this book much better than A Blaze of Glory. In several places when Groom quoted various diaries I felt as if I was there. Great read!

  22. 4 out of 5

    Dale

    Although I am by no means a Civil War buff, I knew a little about Shiloh before I picked up this book. This is the third of Groom's histories I've read (Vicksburg, 1863 and The Aviators being the other two) and I am sold on both his scholarship and his writing. Because I knew the outline of the battle, I also knew that within these pages was infinite heartache, a heartache stretching beyond the 23,741 casualties that those two days of confused butchery would bestow on the assembled armies. (Note Although I am by no means a Civil War buff, I knew a little about Shiloh before I picked up this book. This is the third of Groom's histories I've read (Vicksburg, 1863 and The Aviators being the other two) and I am sold on both his scholarship and his writing. Because I knew the outline of the battle, I also knew that within these pages was infinite heartache, a heartache stretching beyond the 23,741 casualties that those two days of confused butchery would bestow on the assembled armies. (Note: I've always found the term casualty to be confusing, but Groom, quoting none other than Shelby Foote, clarifies it:) When everything was said and done, the combined casualties at Shiloh amounted to 23,741, which is more, as historian Shelby Foote has pointed out, in a single battle than in all America’s previous wars—American Revolution, War of 1812, and Mexican War—combined. The butcher’s bill included 1,754 Union dead, 8,408 wounded, and 2,885 missing or captured for a total of 13,047. Confederate losses were 1,723 killed, 8,012 wounded, and 959 missing or captured for a total of 10,694. The casualties at Shiloh were fully twice those in all the earlier battles of the Civil War. . As terrible was this "butcher's bill," perhaps even more imposing was the realization that Shiloh carried with it: there would be no quick end to the war; there was no quick strike or single action that would halt this national tragedy. There would be other Shilohs: in fact, there were two the next year, both ending on July 4: Antietam and and Gettysburg. As unlikely as either of those locations was for a major battle, they paled in that category to Shiloh. Grant's army was there having taken forts along the Tennessee River and the Confederate troops where there looking to attack the union and keep the waterways open. We meet Grant and Sherman here in Shiloh, both trying to resurrect careers, one having been branded "crazy" the the other a drunk. We meet the talented Confederate General Sidney Johnston, a motivator of men, and P.G.T. Beauregard, "The Great Creole," whose decisions at dusk on the first day of the battle may indeed have changed its outcome--and the course of the war. And of course there is late-arriving Union General Lew Wallace, who, had he followed the oral orders rather than insisting on written orders, might never have lived to go on and write Ben Hur. Running the grounds that day 21-year-old Rebel soldier Henry Morton Stanley was hit by a bullet in the stomach, but his belt buckle saved him and he was able to resume fighting. He would survive the day and later in life and half way around the world would meet, presumably, Dr. David Livingstone. The splendid writer Ambrose Bierce, sometimes accused of being a cynic, was a first lieutenant in the Union ranks; one wonders how much of his alleged cynicism was forged in these two days of hell. Part of the success of this book is what's not in it: the story has Shiloh has been told many times, almost minute-by-minute, in several books. Rather, he draws upon the diaries and letters of a few soldiers civilians and allows their words to paint the canvas of this darkest of days in our history. The words of Bierce, here quoted by Groom, add some of the brushstrokes to the picture: “The air was full of noises,” Bierce continued, “distant musketry rattled smartly and petulantly, or sighed and growled when closer. There were deep shaking explosions and smart shocks. The death-line was an arc of which the river was the chord, filled with the whisper of stray bullets and the hurtle of conical shells; the rush of round shot. There were faint, desultory cheers. Occasionally, against the glare behind the trees, could be seen moving black figures, distinct, but no larger than a thumb; they seemed to be like the figures of demons in old allegorical prints of hell.” Shiloh has it all: heroes, cowards, the fog of war, the futility of war, redemption, sacrifice, mistakes, incredible violence punctuated with bits of decency, high drama, fortitude, determination, life and death. But the book left me, as I knew if would, with an overwhelming sense of loss. For both armies and for the public this battle only served to provoke some hideous beast, into whose maw nearly 24,000 passed as they battled on the grounds that drew their name from a small Methodist chapel nearby, a chapel called Shiloh.

  23. 5 out of 5

    Timons Esaias

    I've read a great deal about the battle of Shiloh, and visited the battlefield three times. I was a bit worried that I would find this book repetitive of my previous reading and therefore a bit dull; but I also realized I hadn't read a whole book on the battle. So I gave it a try. At the beginning Groom says he's not going to give a section-by-section, hour-by-hour narrative, because other books had done that. Instead, he said, he was going to lean on first-person documents from "just a score or I've read a great deal about the battle of Shiloh, and visited the battlefield three times. I was a bit worried that I would find this book repetitive of my previous reading and therefore a bit dull; but I also realized I hadn't read a whole book on the battle. So I gave it a try. At the beginning Groom says he's not going to give a section-by-section, hour-by-hour narrative, because other books had done that. Instead, he said, he was going to lean on first-person documents from "just a score or so" of the participants. This statement made me expect less narrative and more quotation than we actually get. In fact he interrupts the narrative with biographies of the major participants, and the quotes are more commonly brief rather than extensive. Those injected biographies are clear, interesting, and to the point. Still, he does pick some good sources, and that does put us on the battlefield, repeatedly, during the book. I had read more than half of his participants (including Grant's memoirs, Sherman's memoirs, Ambrose Bierce's narration, the Official Records documents, W.H.L. Wallace's widow...) before, but I still found this to be an easy page-turner, and I read it with pleasure. My major complaint would be that the book should have been another hundred pages longer, and he should have discussed what went on over in the Union right wing. The font is large, the spacing between lines is generous, so this book is actually slighter than you would think before opening it up. So, to repeat, the book should have been as long as it appears to be before you realize how few words there are on each page. The use of civilian accounts is an excellent choice, including that of a sister of one of the soldiers, living in distant Bowling Green, Kentucky. Groom also makes a couple of mentions of the woman who was wandering around the battlefield looking for her son, during the shooting. I believe that she was never identified by name for the historical record, so we don't know if she survived, but the soldiers tended to stop firing when she was in range. Groom is also good about mentioning certain officers and certain units that failed to fight, or ran away. I was expecting a few paragraphs at the end, telling us what became of them (in one case we're told in the text), but I don't believe we got that information. One thing I noted was that F. John Semley's analysis of the battle for the Air Command and Staff College (84-2340) seems to be the model for the structure of the narration, but it isn't cited in the bibliography. It almost seems to be quoted, here and there. That could easily be, though, that both works derive from a common source.

  24. 4 out of 5

    William Troy

    Shiloh was a pivotal battle of the Civil War. It was the first battle with a great number of casualties and changed the thought process of many on both sides of the conflict from a short conflict to an extended fight to surrender. Winston Groom does and excellent job describing the run up to the battle and the conflict itself. I think that neither Brigadier General Benjamin Prentiss commanding Grant's Sixth Division who was captured nor Colonel Everett Peabody commander of the First Brigade of t Shiloh was a pivotal battle of the Civil War. It was the first battle with a great number of casualties and changed the thought process of many on both sides of the conflict from a short conflict to an extended fight to surrender. Winston Groom does and excellent job describing the run up to the battle and the conflict itself. I think that neither Brigadier General Benjamin Prentiss commanding Grant's Sixth Division who was captured nor Colonel Everett Peabody commander of the First Brigade of the Sixth Division who was killed, have received proper recognition for their rolls in keeping the Union Army from complete defeat. There are many controversies surrounding this battle. Why hadn't Grant's Army been more alert to the threat from the Confederate forces nearby? Why hadn't they dug in and protected their campsites? Why was General Lew Wallace's Third Division on site and why was is late to the battle? Why was Grant away from his Army when the attack came? Was he drunk? The author does address these points and his assessments are credible. On the Confederate side, Why did General Johnston seem detached from the plan of battle? Why was General Beauregard left to write the plan of attack? Why did Beauregard decide to cease fighting and withdraw when they were so close to success? Again Mr. Groom provides his credible analysis to these questions. I enjoyed this book and for those Civil War buffs, this is an excellent read!

  25. 4 out of 5

    Charlie Longo

    Slaughter of Innocence I remember the names of the great battles of the Civil War from history class but not the details of battle other than Gettysburg. So this book was an intriguing look back at a historic and horrific two day conflict that occurred in the fields of southwest Tennessee in early April 1862. The author puts you in the battlefield with those who fought and died there from the highest general to the lowest private. For many he explains how they happened to find themselves at that Slaughter of Innocence I remember the names of the great battles of the Civil War from history class but not the details of battle other than Gettysburg. So this book was an intriguing look back at a historic and horrific two day conflict that occurred in the fields of southwest Tennessee in early April 1862. The author puts you in the battlefield with those who fought and died there from the highest general to the lowest private. For many he explains how they happened to find themselves at that place at that unfortunate time and for the survivors, how it affected the rest of their lives. This book is not for the faint of heart. The slaughter that occurred on both sides aided by the crude methods of war and medicine of the day are unthinkable, and after two days neither army gained a foot of position. War should be fought by those that make the declaration and not by their innocent children. That said, I found this book intriguing. The author makes use of personal journals of the time to put you there with those who lived it. The book is very readable, and I had trouble putting it down.

  26. 4 out of 5

    Anson Cassel Mills

    In his introduction, Winston Groom (b. 1943) makes clear that he is writing for the general reader rather than for the Civil War buff per se. Both a strength and a weakness of his approach is that a great deal of this well-written book is devoted to background, including a chapter on the causes of the Civil War, full expositions of the takings of Forts Henry and Donelson, and biographical introductions to all the major figures in the Shiloh story. Groom also artfully weaves through his work a nu In his introduction, Winston Groom (b. 1943) makes clear that he is writing for the general reader rather than for the Civil War buff per se. Both a strength and a weakness of his approach is that a great deal of this well-written book is devoted to background, including a chapter on the causes of the Civil War, full expositions of the takings of Forts Henry and Donelson, and biographical introductions to all the major figures in the Shiloh story. Groom also artfully weaves through his work a number of primary source accounts by about a dozen writers. Historians may quibble about a few facts here and a few omissions there. My own complaint is that Groom did not consider Timothy Smith’s suggestion in This Great Battlefield of Shiloh: History, Memory, and the Establishment of a Civil War National Military Park (2004) that the able David W. Reed (1841-1916), the military park’s first historian, overemphasized the importance of the “Hornet's Nest” and “The Sunken Road” to the detriment of all future interpreters of the battle.

  27. 5 out of 5

    J.B. Elhem

    I've a passable knowledge of the civil war as a whole, but Shiloh had always been a bit of a "also" in my knowledge. I visited most of the battlefields of the civil war, which had been an established goal when I "went south" to check them out, but Shiloh was always out of the way, so I never bothered to study it until I discovered Mr. Groom's work. It is enlightening to find out how U. S. Grant came to such prominence in the war, and Groom doesn't exactly let him off the hook for what was, in th I've a passable knowledge of the civil war as a whole, but Shiloh had always been a bit of a "also" in my knowledge. I visited most of the battlefields of the civil war, which had been an established goal when I "went south" to check them out, but Shiloh was always out of the way, so I never bothered to study it until I discovered Mr. Groom's work. It is enlightening to find out how U. S. Grant came to such prominence in the war, and Groom doesn't exactly let him off the hook for what was, in the end, a bit of luck that fell in his lap during the battle in question. I give it a four out of five.

  28. 4 out of 5

    Bob

    Not really prepared to write a detailed review on this book. I will say that this book is a great read for someone who is just getting into learning about the Civil War. It provides great detail without dragging too much or getting hung up. Groom does a great job of not having Civil War bias to either side, unlike many other Civil War historians or writers. Easy read, but not a glance over by any means. The reader will come away knowing something about Shiloh AND the main characters in the weste Not really prepared to write a detailed review on this book. I will say that this book is a great read for someone who is just getting into learning about the Civil War. It provides great detail without dragging too much or getting hung up. Groom does a great job of not having Civil War bias to either side, unlike many other Civil War historians or writers. Easy read, but not a glance over by any means. The reader will come away knowing something about Shiloh AND the main characters in the western Civil War theatre. This book also made me want to read other books by Groom, now a fan. I have already ordered a copy of Vicksburg.

  29. 4 out of 5

    Peter C Lyon

    This is a marvelous book, debunking some of the decades-old myths of a battle which showed America that the civil war "got real." Groom has a clear, clean writing style that "zooms out" to the origins of the civil war and Shiloh's antecedents, "zooms in" to focus on key combatants and non-combatants, and "zooms out" again to discuss Shiloh's legacy. This event intrigued me since I was a youth. That "rebel yell" confederate attack through the morning mist? Well, it never happened. Photos in the Kind This is a marvelous book, debunking some of the decades-old myths of a battle which showed America that the civil war "got real." Groom has a clear, clean writing style that "zooms out" to the origins of the civil war and Shiloh's antecedents, "zooms in" to focus on key combatants and non-combatants, and "zooms out" again to discuss Shiloh's legacy. This event intrigued me since I was a youth. That "rebel yell" confederate attack through the morning mist? Well, it never happened. Photos in the Kindle version would have been nice, but that's what the Internet is for.

  30. 5 out of 5

    Brian

    I picked up this account of Shiloh prior to a visit to the battlefield. It happened to be the copy that the library had on hand. I liked the book as it does a good job of setting the context of the battle and hits all the major highlights. It did seem to be lacking something that I can't quite put my finger on. In hindsight I wish I would have tried one of the more highly recommended accounts such as: Shiloh and the Western Campaign of 1862, by O. Edward Cunningham; Larry Daniel's Shiloh: The Ba I picked up this account of Shiloh prior to a visit to the battlefield. It happened to be the copy that the library had on hand. I liked the book as it does a good job of setting the context of the battle and hits all the major highlights. It did seem to be lacking something that I can't quite put my finger on. In hindsight I wish I would have tried one of the more highly recommended accounts such as: Shiloh and the Western Campaign of 1862, by O. Edward Cunningham; Larry Daniel's Shiloh: The Battle that Changed the Civil War; or Shiloh, Bloody April by Wiley Sword.

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